3C – Combat Climate Change
The 3C initiative
comprises globally active companies which are committed to climate protection. The initiative’s goal is to demonstrate global approaches to solving a global problem. Lufthansa joined the 3C initiative in 2007.
Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe. Created in 2001, the ACARE council consists of representatives from the EU member states, EU Commission, Eurocontrol, the European aerospace industry, research institutions and others. Its main task is to develop and implement the strategic research agenda (SRA) for Europe’s aerospace sector.
Association of European Airlines. Europäischer Airline-Verband.
Advanced Sustainability Performance Index. Lufthansa features in the ASPI Index, which was set up in 2001. This index depicts the fi nancial performance of the 120 best companies of the Dow Jones EURO STOXX according to the criteria of sustainability. The prerequisite for being listed in the ASPI Index is the systematic integration of the long-term interests of stakeholders in the context of corporate policy, strategy and activities. The index is run by the agency Vigeo in cooperation with Stoxx Ltd.
The whole mass of air surrounding the Earth. It is divided into various layers, distinguish ed from one another by distinct differences in vertical bands of temperature. Important for air traffi c are the two lower layers: the troposphere and the stratosphere, lying above that. The troposphere’s upper boundaries vary depending on season and latitude. They lie at altitudes of 16 to 18 kilometers above sea level at the equator, and at 8 to 12 kilometers above sea level at the poles. The temperature in the tropopause, the transition layer between troposphere and stratosphere, drops to only about minus 60 degrees Celsius. It rises again in the stratosphere. The so-called ozone layer is also located in the stratosphere at altitudes of about 25 to 30 kilometers. Today’s commercial aircraft fl y at cruising altitudes of between 8 and 13 kilometers. According to the latest research, air traffi c emissions do not contribute to the reduction of the ozone layer.
Bundesdeutscher Arbeitskreis für Umweltbewusstes Management e. V. (Federal Working Group for Environmentally-Aware Management). B.A.U.M. was founded in 1984 as the fi rst independent environmental initiative of German business. At currently 450 members, it is the largest of its kind in Europe. Lufthansa has been a member of the Working Group since 1997.
Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie e. V. (Federal Association of German Industry)
Bundesverband der Deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie e. V. (Federal Association of German Aviation and Space Industry)
Describes a situation in which all of a company’s offers are marketed under a single brand name, whereby the company and the brand are identical.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Gas resulting in nature from the burning or decomposition of organic masses (e. g. plant material) and from the breathing process of humans and animals. The greenhouse gas CO2 remains for about 100 years in the atmosphere. Scientists attribute the increase of atmospheric CO2 over the last 100 years to the burning of fossil fuels (e. g. coal, oil, natural gas) by humans. Per tonne of fuel, 3.15 tonnes of CO2 result from the combustion process. Currently, about 2.2 percent of man-made CO2 emissions are due to air traffi c. (Source: German Aerospace Center)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Chemical compound consisting of one carbon and one oxygen atom, formed in the incomplete combustion process of substances containing carbon. For aircraft engines, the level of CO emissions depends greatly on the thrust level: The emissions per kilogram of fuel burned are higher at idle settings, while taxiing and on approach than during the climbing and cruising phases.
Continuous Descent Approach. Procedure for a fl ight’s approach phase that reduces noise emissions 20 to 40 kilometers ahead of the runway threshold (Frankfurt). At Frankfurt Airport, it can only be used at night due to capacity restrictions.
Change Management comprises all the measures a company uses to introduce or adapt to change. The more intensively employees are informed about and involved in the processes of change, the more successful these changes will be.
Aircraft that meet the regulations of the strictest noise protection standard currently in force – the Chapter-4 noise standard. The Environmental Committee (CAEP) of the ICAO agreed on this standard in September 2001. As a result, all aircraft newly certifi ed from 2006 must remain cumulatively below the Chapter-3 noise levels by 10 decibels or more. The maximum noise emission values for aircraft were introduced by the ICAO under Annex 16 to the convention on international civil aviation. Noise levels depend on the aircraft’s maximum take-off weight and number of engines.
Corporate education institution for professionals and managers. See also Lufthansa School of Business (LHSB).
Customer Profi le Index (CPI)
The Lufthansa Passenger Airlines, in cooperation with renowned institutes, continuously conduct worldwide surveys and thus assess the level of customer satisfaction. These data are compiled in the Customer Profi le Index, which informs the entire company in the form of a single fi gure about the current status of customer satisfaction.
Measuring unit for the intensity and pressure of sound. The difference in intensity between the softest sound the human ear can perceive and the pain threshold is 1:10 trillion. To depict this enormous range objectively, acoustics uses the logarithmic decibel scale. On this scale, the value “0” is assigned to the perception threshold (for a sound of 1,000 Hz) and the pain threshold at the value “130.” An increase of 10 dB corresponds to a tenfold increase in the sound’s intensity. For the perceived volume, a difference of 10 dB corresponds to half or double the volume. However, the human ear is not equally sensitive across the entire range of frequencies. Low and high sounds are not perceived as being equally loud even at the same intensity. For measurements, this difference is equalized and noted accordingly. The best known such notation is the “A value,” marked by the index dB(A). To measure aircraft noise, the EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Decibel) unit is used internationally.
Deutsches Netzwerk Wirtschaftsethik (DNWE)
German Network for Business Ethics. DNWE is a nonprofi t organization, in which Lufthansa has been a member since January 1998. DNWE has about 450 current members, including many from German business, politics, religion and science. At the same time, DNWE is a national association of the European Business Ethics Network (EBEN).
In a corporate context, diversity refers to all characteristics that distinguish employees from one another. Diversity management offers approaches for handling human differences for the benefi t of company and employees alike.
German Aerospace Center. The DLR serves scientifi c, economic and social purposes. It maintains 30 institutes, testing facilities and operational sites. Its goal is to help – using the means of aviation and space fl ight – to secure and shape the future. In its work, the DLR also seeks cooperation and allocation of research tasks among European partners.
Dow Jones Sustainability World Index
The leading sustainability index worldwide lists the top 10 percent of companies in each industry, whose sustainable approach to corporate management is exemplary. Lufthansa was again listed in 2008.
Deutscher ReiseVerband e. V. (German Travel Association)
econsense – Forum for Sustainable Development of German Businesses
is an association of globally active corporations and organizations in German Glossary 117 industry that have integrated the guiding principle of sustainable development into their corporate strategies. Lufthansa is a founding member of this cross-industry network, which was set up in 2000.
Term for giving care to older next of kin. Elder care is part of Diversity Management. When needed, the Lufthansa Family Service puts employees in contact with care providers for family members in need.
Environmental Management and Audit Scheme, colloquially referred to as EU eco-audit regulations. European regulations concerning environmental management and certification.
are usually offered to staff at preferential prices and with favorable terms of payment. Ordinarily, they are subject to a blocking period, during which they may not be sold.
Equivalent continuous noise level (Leq)
The Leq is a measure for the energetic average of all sound pressure levels over a defined period of time. All sound events that differ in intensity and duration are summarized according to mathematical rules. The resulting average value is an accepted and proven measurement of the “noise quantity” occurring over an observed time interval.
Ethibel Sustainability Index. The independent Belgian agency Ethibel has listed Lufthansa in its Ethibel Investment Register and the Ethibel Sustainability Index (ESI). The ESI offers institutional investors, asset managers, banks and investors a comprehensive overview of the financial results of companies that distinguish themselves by pursuing sustainable business practices. Since the merger with Vigeo and Stock at Stake in 2005, this index is part of Vigeo. However, Forum Ethibel continues to be responsible for the ethical criteria and the composition of the ESI. Updates of and calculations for the index are performed by the internationally renowned index provider Standard & Poor’s.
Freight performance (FTKO/FTKT)
Airlines distinguish between freight performance offered (FTKO, freight tonne kilometers offered) and its sold freight performance (FTKT, freight tonne kilometers transported). See also tonne kilometers.
Index introduced by the Financial Times and the London Stock Exchange in 2001. The FTSE4Good lists only companies with above-average performance in the areas of human rights, social standards and environmental protection. Lufthansa has been listed since 2001.
Dumping of fuel in flight due to emergency situations. A procedure used on long-haul aircraft before unscheduled landings (e. g. in the event of technical problems or serious passenger illness) to decrease the aircraft’s weight to the maximum permissible landing weight. In the event of a fuel dump, special airspace is assigned to the aircraft, if possible above uninhabited or thinly populated areas. Fuel is usually dumped at altitudes of 4–8 kilometers. A minimum altitude of 1,500 meters and a minimum speed of 500 km/h are required. The aircraft may not fly a fully closed circle. The dumped kerosene forms a fine mist in the turbulence behind the aircraft. Despite the use of highly sensitive methods of analysis, no contamination has been determined so far in plant or soil samples after fuel dumps.
Global network in whose context the United Nations cooperates with private-sector corporations and civil action organizations to advance human rights, labor standards, environmental protection and anti-corruption measures. Lufthansa has been a member since 2002.
Great Circle Distance
Shortest distance between two points on the Earth’s surface, measured in kilometers (great circle kilometers) or nautical miles. The center of a great circle is the center of the Earth.
Gaseous substances that contribute to the greenhouse effect and have both natural and human (anthropogenic) causes. The most important natural greenhouse gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4); the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels. It accounts for about 77 percent of the greenhouse effect attributable to human activities. Methane, primarily generated by agriculture and large-scale animal husbandry, contributes about 14 percent to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Other artificial greenhouse gases are nitrous oxide (N2O), fluorocarbons (FCs and HFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Source: World Resources Institute (WRI), 2005.
House of Brands
Used to describe companies that place their offers/products under different brands in the market without necessarily communicating the association with the parent company. Company and brand are thus not absolutely identical.
International Air Transport Association. The umbrella organization of international commercial aviation.
International Civil Aviation Organization. A United Nations agency that develops internationally binding norms for civil aviation.
German chapter of the International Chamber of Commerce. The ICC was founded in 1919 as the World Business Organization. More than 1,500 business organizations and over 5,000 corporations are organized in the worldwide framework of the ICC. Lufthansa has been a member since 1955. www.icc-deutschland.de
Initiative Pro Recyclingpapier
Founded in 2000, the initiative unites various industries and aims at promoting an intensive usage and the acceptance of recycling paper. Lufthansa is one of the initiative’s founding members.
Transport system that uses at least two modes of transport – such as train and plane – integrated in a transport chain to carry people or goods from door to door. Thanks to a global approach, existing transport capacities can be used more efficiently.
International environmental management system. Companies hereby receive an effective instrument that allows them to take environmental aspects into consideration in decisions relating to corporate policies and to continuously improve the situation of environmental care in relation to all daily tasks.
Fuel for jet and propeller engines that is chemically similar to petroleum. Like diesel fuel or gasoline, kerosene is produced by distilling crude oil; unlike these fuels, kerosene does not contain halogenated additives. Due to its manufacturing process, it does not contain benzene hexachloride either. Worldwide, aircraft currently consume almost 258 million tonnes of kerosene per year. This represents about 6 percent of the world’s primary energy requirements in crude oil.
Codifies binding goals for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. It was passed in 1997 as an amendment to the protocol concerning the formulation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and was ratified in February 2005.
Period of time a flight crew spends at an airport en route or a destination airport before beginning work on the next flight.
Lufthansa School of Business (LHSB)
Germany’s first corporate university. It has received multiple awards for the worldwide standards it establishes for the development and training of professionals and managers. The LHSB supports processes of change within the Group and promotes a shared management culture.
Instrument for targeted support of junior employees. Focuses on regular personal contacts between mentor and mentee.
Acronym standing for maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft.
Acronym standing for maximum take-off weight of an aircraft.
Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
Chemical compounds con sisting of one nitrogen and several oxygen atoms. NOX is defi ned as the sum of NO and NO2 compounds. Natural sources include lightning and microbes in the soil. Nitrogen oxides are also generated in combustion processes under high pressures and temperatures. Both of these parameters have been increased in mod ern aircraft engines to signifi cantly reduce fuel consumption as well as emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. However, future combustion chambers of an advanced design could help reduce NOX emissions by 85 percent. Depending on the type of aircraft and operational conditions, this value varies between 6 and 20 kilos per tonne of fuel burned. Air traffi c has a share of 2–3 percent in man-made NOX emissions. Climate models show that nitrogen oxides have increased the concentration of ozone at cruising altitudes by a few percentage points.
Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series. Job safety management system, developed by the British Standards Institution in cooperation with international certifi cation organizations.
Molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms formed in the stratosphere. The ozone layer located in the stratosphere has an important protective function, as it absorbs harmful ultraviolet light. While ozone at higher altitudes is broken down massively by chlorofl uorocarbons (CFCs), it develops close to the ground under the infl uence of sunlight from numerous precursor substances (“summer smog”) and irritates the mucous membranes. At current levels, nitrogen oxide emissions from air traffi c at cruising altitudes cause an increase in atmospheric ozone, analogous to the generation of summer smog, estimated by scientists at 3–4 percent on the heavily-fl own North Atlantic routes.
Passenger kilometers (PKO/PKT)
Measure for transport performance in passenger carriage (number of passengers multiplied by distance fl own). Here one distinguishes between available transport performance (PKO, passenger kilometers offered or synonymously SKO, seat kilometers offered) and actual transpor performance (PKT, passenger kilometers transported).
Person tonne kilometer (PTKT)
Measure for the transport capacity available (SKO, seat kilometers offered).
Seat load factor (SLF)
Passenger-related measure of utilization of aircraft: The ratio of transport performance (PKT, passenger kilometers transported) to capacity (PKO, passenger kilometers offered).
Single European Sky (SES)
Unifi ed European airspace. This initiative of the European Union aims at optimizing traffi c fl ows, standardizing licenses for air traffi c controllers, harmonizing technology and thus maintaining safety, capacities and punctuality in growing air transport.
Designated point in time at which an airline may use an airport’s runway for takeoff or landing.
Groups or individuals who formulate their demands on a company (e. g. attainment of corporate goals) and pursue these either personally or through representatives. This includes shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers and others.
According to the guiding principle of sustainable development formulated in 1987 by the World Commission for Development and the Environment (Brundtland Commission), “sustainable development is a form of development that meets the needs of today’s generation without jeopardizing the abilities of future generations to satisfy their own.” For businesses, this means acting responsibly not only in economic matters but also in environmental and social issues. All three aspects – economic, ecological and social – must be kept in balance.
Tonne kilometer (TKO/TKT)
Measure of transport performance (payload multiplied by distance). One distinguishes between available transport performance (TKO, tonne kilometers offered) and the actual transport performance (TKT, tonne kilometers transported). In calculating payloads, passengers are taken into account by means of a statistical average weight.
Gases of which there are only very small amounts present in the atmosphere (e. g. ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.) but which are of great signifi cance for the Earth’s climate and the chemical processes in the atmosphere.
Anti-corruption organization, of which Lufthansa has been a member since 1999.
The United Nations Environmental Program.
UN Global Compact
see Global Compact.
Unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs)
Organic mixture of carbon and hydrogen that results from the incomplete combustion of fuels containing hydrocarbons or from the evaporation of fuel.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Volatile organic substances that are characterized by high steam pressure and thus evaporate easily into the atmosphere at room temperature. VOCs are present in solvents, cleaning agents, fuels and other substances. In the presence of nitrogen oxides and intense sunlight, VOCs lead to the generation of ozone.
Verband Deutsches Reisemanagement e. V. (German Association of Travel Management)
is the most important greenhouse gas, even ahead of carbon dioxide. Without water vapor from natural sources, the Earth’s surface would be around 22 degrees Celsius cooler. This makes water vapor responsible for two-thirds of the natural greenhouse effect (33 degrees Celsius). For each kilo of kerosene burned, 1.24 kilos of water vapor are released. Concerns that air traffi c might increase the concentration of water vapor in the stratosphere and thus change the climate have been refuted by scientifi c research. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) concluded that even a one hundred-fold increase in the quantity of water vapor emitted by air traffi c would not result in a detectable climatic signal.
Refers to a healthy equilibrium between work and private life.