Glossary

  • AEA

    Association of European Airlines.
    www.aea.be

  • Aerosols

    Aerosols are solid and/or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. They reach the atmosphere by means of natural processes (wind, desert storms, volcanic eruptions) or human activities (combustion of biomass and fossil fuels). The most important aerosols are mineral dust, sea salt, cellular (biological) particles, soot, organic compounds and sulfate. From a climatic perspective, aerosols are the opponents of greenhouse gases, as they can reflect incident light and thus have a cooling effect.

  • aireg e.V.

    Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany. aireg is a registered association of leading German research institutions, Lufthansa and other companies in the aviation industry, and bioenergy producers. The goal of this initiative, which was founded in 2011, is to advance the development and introduction of regenerative aviation fuels in Germany and to inform the public at large about this topic.
    www.aireg.de

  • ATM - Air Traffic Management

    Air Traffic Management ensures both the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in all phases of operations.

  • Atmosphere

    The whole mass of air surrounding the Earth. It is divided into various layers, distinguished from one another by distinct differences in vertical bands of temperature. Important for air traffic are the two lower layers: the tropo­sphere and, above it, the stratosphere. The troposphere's upper boundaries vary depending on season and latitude. They lie at altitudes of 16 to 18 kilometers above sea level at the equator, and at 8 to 12 kilometers above sea level at the poles. The temperature in the tropopause, the transition layer between troposphere and stratosphere, drops to only about minus 60 degrees Celsius. It rises again in the stratosphere. The so-called ozone layer is also located in the stratosphere at altitudes of about 25 to 30 kilometers. Today's commercial aircraft fly at cruising altitudes of between 8 and 13 kilometers. According to the latest research, air traffic emissions do not contribute to the reduction of the ozone layer.

  • B.A.U.M.

    Bundesdeutscher Arbeits­kreis für Umweltbewusstes Management e.V. (Federal Working Group for Environ­mentally-Aware Management. B.A.U.M.) B.A.U.M. was founded in 1984 as the first independent environmental initiative of German business. With more than 500 members, it is the largest of its kind in Europe today. Lufthansa has been a member of the Working Group since 1997.
    www.baumev.de

  • BDL - Bundesverband der Deutschen Luftverkehrswirtschaft

    Lufthansa is a founding member of the Federal Associationof the German Air Transport Industry (BDL), which has representedthe interests of the German aviation industry with asingle voice since December 2010. Its main goals are tomake politicians and journalists more aware of aviation’s economicand employment-related importance and to strengthenGermany as a business location for aviation in general.
    www.bdl.aero

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)

    Gas resulting in nature from the burning or decomposition of organic substances (e.g. plant material). The greenhouse gas CO2 remains in the atmosphere for about 100 years. Scientists attribute the increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last 100 years to the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil, natural gas) by humans. Per tonne of fuel, 3.15 tonnes of CO2 result from the combustion process. Currently, about 2.55 percent of the CO2 emissions due to human activities are caused by global air traffic. (Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) 2016, 2014 values)

  • Carbon monoxide (CO)

    Chemical compound consisting of one carbon and one oxygen atom, formed in the incomplete combustion process of substances containing carbon. For aircraft engines, the level of CO emissions depends greatly on the thrust level: The emissions per kilogram of fuel burned are higher at idle settings, while taxiing and on approach than during the climb­ing and cruising phases.

  • CDA

    Continuous Descent Approach. Procedure for a flight's approach phase that requires less engine thrust and is therefore quieter and more fuel efficient. However, this type of approach is only possible if there are no constraints due to high air traffic in the airspace concerned.

  • CDP (previously Carbon Disclosure Project)

    The CDP is an independent nongovernmental organization with a current membership of more than 820 institutional investors worldwide. Every year this initiative, which was founded in 2000, gathers data and information on CO2 emissions, climate risks as well as reduction goals and strategies on a voluntary basis from corporations and organizations on behalf of investors by means of standardized questionnaires. In 2016, 6,000 companies and organizations published their greenhouse gas emissions and other environmentally relevant performance ratios in this way. Today, CDP administers the world’s largest database of its kind. Investors use this data to assess long-term opportunities and risks for the companies in their portfolios, to determine their investment strategy and to develop investment products and indices.
    www.cdp.net

  • Chapter 4 aircraft

    Aircraft that comply with the strictest noise protection standard currently in force – the Chapter 4 noise standard. The Environmental Committee (CAEP) of the ICAO agreed on this standard in September 2001. As a result, all aircraft newly certified since 2006 must remain cumulatively below the Chapter 3 noise levels by 10 decibels or more. The maximum noise emission values for aircraft were introduced by the ICAO under Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Noise levels depend on the aircraft’s maximum takeoff weight and number of engines. From December 31, 2017, the new Chapter 14 standard will apply for newly-certified regional aircraft; for all other aircraft from December 31, 2020.

  • CO see "Carbon monoxide"

  • CO2 see "Carbon dioxide"

  • Codeshare

    A codeshare is a flight segment that is sold under the flight number of one airline, while being operated either partly or entirely by another airline. Both companies maintain their independent profiles in the market.

  • Compliance

    Compliance describes the entirety of all measures that ensure the lawful conduct of companies, their management bodies and their employees with regard to legal directives and interdictions.

  • Corporate responsibility (CR)

    Corporate responsibility expresses to which degree a company assumes accountability for the effects its business activities have on employees, customers, society and the environment.

  • Corporate university

    Corporate education institution for professionals and managers. See also Lufthansa School of Business (LHSB).

  • CPI

    Lufthansa German Airlines, in cooperation with renowned institutes, continually conducts worldwide surveys to assess the level of customer satisfaction. These data are compiled in the Customer Profile Index, which informs the entire company, in the form of a single figure, of the current status of customer satisfaction.

  • Decibel (dB)

    Measuring unit for the intensity and pressure of sound. The difference in intensity between the softest sound the human ear can perceive and the pain threshold is 1:10 trillion. To depict this enormous range objectively, acoustics uses the logarithmic decibel scale. On this scale, the value “0” is assigned to the perception threshold (for a sound of 1,000 Hz) and the pain threshold at the value “130”. An increase of 10 dB corresponds to a tenfold increase in sound intensity. For the perceived volume, a difference of 10 dB corresponds to half or double the volume. However, the human ear is not equally sensitive across the entire range of frequencies. Low and high sounds are not perceived as being equally loud even at the same intensity. For measurements, this difference is equalized and noted accordingly. The best known such notation is the A value, marked by the index dB(A). To measure aircraft noise, the EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Decibel) unit is used internationally.

  • Diversity

    In a corporate context, diversity refers to all characteristics that distinguish employees from one another. Diversity management offers approaches for handling human differences for the benefit of company and employees alike.

  • DLR

    The DLR serves scientific, economic and social purposes. It maintains numerous institutes, testing facilities and operational centers. Its declared goal is to help – using the means of aviation and space ight – to secure and shape the future. In its work, the DLR also seeks cooperation and allocation of tasks among European partners.
    www.dlr.de

  • Deutsches Netzwerk Wirtschaftsethik (DNWE)

    DNWE is a nonprofit organization of which Lufthansa has been a member since January 1998. DNWE has more than 600 current members, including many from German business, politics, religion, and science. At the same time, DNWE is a national association of the European Business Ethics Network (EBEN).
    www.dnwe.de

  • EBIT

    Financial indicator; it denotes earnings before interest and taxes. From financial year 2015 used as the central earnings indicator. It is calculated from total operating income minus operating expenses plus the result from equity investments.

  • econsense

    Forum for Sustainable Development of German Businesses. An association of globally active corporations and organizations in German industry that have integrated the guiding principle of sustainable development into their corporate strategies. Lufthansa is a founding member of this cross-industry network, which was set up in 2000.
    www.econsense.de

  • ECPI

    The Lufthansa Group’s place in the ECPI® Index family was con- rmed in 2016. This index comprises the 150 highest-capitalized companies within the European economic and monetary union, which represent suitable and sustainable investments according to the ECPI’s screening method. The ECPI analyzes data in the environmental, social and governance (ESG) areas of companies as well as the development, calculation and publication of ECPI indi- ces. It monitors 4,000 issuers by means of a disciplined and certified method that covers a range of ESG criteria.

  • EMAS

    Environmental Management and Audit Scheme. Colloquially referred to as EU eco-audit regulations. European regulations concerning environmental management and certification.

  • Equivalent continuous noise level (Leq)

    The Leq is a measure for the energetic. average of all sound pressure levels over a defined period of time. All sound events that differ in intensity and duration are summarized according to mathemat­ical rules. The resulting average value is an accepted and proven measurement of the "noise quantity" occurring over an observed time interval.

  • Ethibel

    Ethibel Sustainability Index. The independent Belgian agency Ethibel has listed Lufthansa in its Ethibel Investment Register and the Ethibel Sustainability Index (ESI). The ESI offers institu­tional investors, asset managers, banks and investors a comprehensive overview of the financial results of companies that distinguish themselves by pursuing sustainable business practices. Since the merger with Vigeo and Stock at Stake in 2005, this index has been part of Vigeo. However, Forum Ethibel continues to be responsible for the ethical criteria and the composition of the ESI. Updates of and calculations for the index are performed by the internationally renowned index provider Standard & Poor's.
    www.ethibel.org

  • Freight performance (FTKO/FTKT)

    Airlines distinguish between freight performance offered (FTKO, freight tonne kilometers offered) and its sold freight performance (FTKT, freight tonne kilometers transported). See also tonne kilometers.

  • FTSE4Good

    The index was introduced in 2001 by FTSE, a wholly-ownedsubsidiary of the London Stock Exchange. It lists only thosecompanies that meet the internationally accepted standardsof corporate responsibility in the following dimensions: environmentalmanagement, climate change, human and laborrights along the supply chain, corporate governance andanti-corruption efforts. Lufthansa has been listed since 2001.
    www.ftse4good.com

  • Fuel Dump

    Dumping of fuel in flight due to emergency situations. A procedure used on long-haul aircraft before unscheduled landings (e.g. in the event of technical problems or serious passenger illness) to decrease the aircraft's weight to the maximum permissible landing weight. In the event of a fuel dump, special air­space is assigned to the aircraft, if possible above uninhabited or thinly populated areas. Fuel is usually dumped at altitudes of 4-8 kilometers. A minimum altitude of 1,500 meters and a minimum speed of 500 km/h are required. The aircraft may not fly a fully closed circle. The dumped kerosene forms a fine mist in the turbulence behind the aircraft. Despite the use of highly sensitive methods of analysis, no contamination has been determined so far in plant or soil samples after fuel dumps.

  • Global Compact see "UN Global Compact"

  • Great Circle Distance

    Shortest distance between two points on the Earth's surface, measured in kilometers (great circle kilometers) or nautical miles. The center of a great circle is the center of the Earth.

  • Greenhouse gases

    Gaseous substances that contribute to the greenhouse effect and have both natural and human (anthropogenic) causes. The most important natural greenhouse gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4); the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels and methane, primarily from agriculture and industrial livestock farming. Other artificial greenhouse gases are nitrous oxide (N2O), fluorocarbons (FCs and HFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

  • Hub

    In air transport, a hub refers to a central traffic point or an airline's transfer airport. Passengers as well as freight are transported from their original starting point to one of the airline's "home airports" (hub). From there, they are carried to their destination by a second flight alongside passengers and freight from other departure points, but with the same destination.

  • IATA – International Air Transport Association

    The umbrella organization of international commercial aviation.
    www.iata.org

  • ICAO

    International Civil Aviation Organization. A United Nations agency that develops internationally binding norms for civil aviation.
    www.icao.int

  • ICC

    International Chamber of Commerce. The ICC was founded in 1919 as the World Business Organization. More than 1,500 business organizations and over 5,000 corporations are organized in the worldwide framework of the ICC. Lufthansa has been a member since 1955.
    www.icc-deutschland.de

  • ILO standards

    Work standards of the International. Labor Organization, which include among others the bans on child labor, forced labor and discrimination as well as the fundamental right of freedom of association for employees.
    www.ipcc.ch

  • ISO 9001:2008

    The international standard DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 defines the requirements a quality management system must fulfill. Proof that the standard is adhered to is given by independent certifiers, who issue a certificate with fixed validity after a validation.
    www.iso.org

  • ISO 14001 – International environmental management system

    Companies hereby receive an effective instrument that allows them to take environmental aspects into consideration in decisions relating to corporate policies and to continuously improve the situation of environmental care in relation to all daily tasks.
    www.iso.org

  • Kerosene

    Fuel for jet and propeller engines that is chemically similar to petroleum. Like diesel fuel or gasoline, kerosene is produced by distilling crude oil; unlike these fuels, kerosene does not contain halogenated additives.

  • Lufthansa School of Business (LHSB)

    The LHSB supports processes of change within the Group and promotes a shared management culture. It has received multiple awards for the worldwide standards it establishes for the development and training of professionals and managers.

  • Low-cost segment

    Airlines offering predominantly low fares, but featuring reduced or separately charged services on the ground and in the air. Flights are most often operated to/from airports outside of major population centers.

  • Mentoring

    Instrument for targeted support of junior employees. Focuses on regular personal contacts between mentor and mentee.

  • MRO

    Acronym standing for maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft.

  • MSCI Global Sustainability Index Series

    The US index provider MSCI launched a series of sustainability indices in September 2010. The MCSI index family comprises seven environmental, two value-based and 15 best-of-class indices. These include shares of companies with high and medium market capitalization and are based on the MSCI World Index. They depict companies that are particularly committed to environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. Lufthansa has been included in this index series since June 2015.
    www.msci.com/esg-indexes

  • MTOW

    Acronym standing for maximum takeoff weight of an aircraft.

  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

    Chemical compounds consisting of one nitrogen and several oxygen atoms. NOX is defined as the sum of NO and NO2 compounds. Natural sources include lightning and microbes in the soil. Nitrogen oxides are also generated in combustion processes under high pressures and temperatures. Both of these parameters have been increased in modern aircraft engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption as well as emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. However, future combustion chambers of an advanced design could help reduce NOX emissions by 85 percent. Air traffic contributes 2-3 percent of man-made NOX emissions. Climate models show that nitrogen oxides have increased the concentration of ozone at cruising altitudes by a few percentage points.

  • NOx see "Nitrogen oxides"

  • oekom

    The oekom Corporate Rating evaluates the social and environmental compatibility of companies according to a selection of 100 industry-specific indicators on average. Companies that rank in the top of their respective industries in the context of an oekom Corporate Rating and fulfill the industry-specific minimum criteria are awarded the oekom Prime Status by oekom research. www.oekom-research.com

  • OHSAS 18001 – Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series

    Job safety management system developed by the British Standards Institution in cooperation with international certification organizations.

  • Ozone

    Molecule formed in the stratosphere and consisting of three oxygen atoms. The ozone layer located in the stratosphere has an important protective function, as it absorbs harmful ultraviolet light. While ozone at higher altitudes is broken down massively by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), it develops close to the ground under the influence of sunlight from numerous precursor substances (summer smog) and irritates the mucous membranes. At current levels, nitrogen oxide emissions from air traffic at cruising altitudes cause an increase in atmospheric ozone, analogous to the generation of summer smog, estimated by scientists at 3-4 percent on the heavily-flown North Atlantic routes.

  • Passenger kilometers (PKO/PKT)

    Measure for transport performance in passenger carriage (number of passengers multiplied by distance flown). Here one distinguishes between available transport performance (PKO, passenger kilometers offered or synonymously SKO, seat kilometers offered) and actual transport performance (PKT, passenger kilometers transported).

  • Pro Recycling Paper Initiative

    Founded in 2000, the initiative unites various industries and aims at promoting an intensive usage and the acceptance of recycling paper. Lufthansa is one of the initiative's founding members.
    www.papiernetz.de

  • RSB - Roundtable for Sustainable Biomaterials

    International initiative to develop a global standardization and certification system for agrofuels.

  • SAFUG - Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group

    Initiative of airlines, aircraft manufactur­ers and providers of refinery technology whose goal is to accelerate the development and commercialization of sustain­able fuels for the air transport industry.

  • Seat kilometer

    Measure for the transport capacity available (SKO, seat kilometers offered).

  • Seat load factor (SLF)

    Passenger-related measure of utilization of aircraft: The ratio of transport performance (PKT, passenger kilometers transported) to capacity (PKO, passenger kilometers offered).

  • Single European Sky (SES)

    Describes the efforts of the European Commission undertaken since the late 1990s with the goal of restructuring the European airspace in terms of optimizing traffic flows and dissolving the airspace's fragmented structure, defined by national borders and interests, by creating a limited number of Functional Airspace Blocks (FABs).

  • Slot

    Designated point in time at which an airline may use an airport's runway for takeoff or landing.

  • Stakeholder

    Groups or individuals who formulate their demands on a company (e.g. attainment of corporate goals) and pursue these either personally or through representatives. This includes share­holders, employees, customers, suppliers and others.

  • Sustainable development

    According to the guiding principle of sustainable development formulated in 1987 by the World Commission for Development and the Environment (Brundtland Commission), “sustainable development is […] a form of development that meets the needs of today’s generation without jeopardizing the abilities of future generations to satisfy their own.” For businesses, this means acting responsibly not only in economic matters but also in environmental and social issues. All three aspects – economic, ecological, and social – must be kept in balance.

  • Tonne kilometer (TKO/TKT)

    Measure of transport performance (payload multiplied by distance). One distinguishes between available transport performance (TKO, tonne kilometers offered) and the actual transport performance (TKT, tonne kilometers transported). In calculating payloads, passengers are taken into account by means of a statistical average weight.

  • Town meeting

    Information event for employees at different locations of a company.

  • Transparency International

    Anti-corruption organization, of which Lufthansa has been a member since 1999.
    www.transparency.de

  • UHC – Unburned hydrocarbons

    Organic mixture of carbon and hydrogen that results from the incomplete combustion of fuels containing hydrocarbons or from the evaporation of fuel.

  • UN Global Compact

    Global network in whose context the United Nations cooperates with private-sector corporations and civil action organizations to advance human rights, labor standards, environmental protection and anti-corruption measures. Deutsche Lufthansa AG has been a member since 2002.
    www.unglobalcompact.org

  • VOC

    Volatile Organic Compounds. Volatile organic substances that are characterized by high steam pressure and thus evaporate easily into the atmosphere at room temperature. VOCs are present in solvents, cleaning agents, fuels and other substances. In the pres­ence of nitrogen oxides and intense sunlight, VOCs lead to the generation of ozone.

  • Water vapor

    The most important greenhouse gas, even ahead of carbon dioxide. Without
    water vapor from natural sources, the Earth's surface would be around 22 degrees Celsius cooler. This makes water vapor responsible for two-thirds of the natural greenhouse effect (33 degrees Celsius). For each kilo of kerosene burned, 1.24 kilos of water vapor are released. Concerns that air traffic might increase the concentration of water vapor in the stratosphere and thus change the climate have been refuted by scientific research. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) concluded that even a one hundred-fold increase in the quantity of water vapor emitted by air traffic would not result in a detectable climatic signal.

  • Work-life balance

    Refers to a healthy equilibrium between work and private life.