Please activate JavaScript!
Please install Adobe Flash Player, click here for download

Balance 2015 ENG

108 // Service and Information EMAS – Environmental Management and Audit Scheme European regulations concerning environ- mental management and certification; colloquially referred to as EU eco-audit regulations. Equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) The Leq is a measure for the energetic average of all sound pressure levels over a defined period of time. All sound events that differ in intensity and duration are summarized according to mathematical rules. The resulting average value is an accepted and proven measurement of the noise quantity occurring over an observed time interval. Ethibel – Ethibel Sustainability Index The independent Belgian agency Ethibel has listed Lufthansa in its Ethibel Invest- ment Register and the Ethibel Sustainability Index (ESI). The ESI offers institutional investors, asset managers, banks, and private investors a comprehensive overview of the financial results of companies that distinguish themselves by pursuing sus- tainable business practices. Since the merger with Vigeo and Stock at Stake in 2005, this index has been part of Vigeo. However, Forum Ethibel continues to be responsible for the ethical criteria and the composition of the ESI. Updates of and calculations for the index are performed by the internationally renowned index provider Standard & Poor’s. F Freight performance (FTKO/FTKT) Airlines distinguish between freight perfor- mance offered (FTKO, freight tonne kilome- ters offered) and its sold freight perfor- mance (FTKT, freight tonne kilometers transported). See also “Tonne kilometers” FTSE4Good The index was introduced in 2001 by FTSE, a wholly owned subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange. It lists only those compa- nies that meet the internationally accepted standards for corporate responsibility in the following dimensions: environmental management, climate change, human and labor rights along the supply chain, corpo- rate governance, and anti-corruption efforts. Lufthansa has been listed since 2001. Fuel Dump Dumping of fuel in flight due to emergency situations. A procedure used on long-haul aircraft before unscheduled landings (e.g. in the event of technical problems or seri- ous passenger illness) to decrease the aircraft’s weight to the maximum permissi- ble landing weight. In the event of a fuel dump, special air space is assigned to the aircraft, if possible above uninhabited or thinly populated areas. Fuel is usually dumped at altitudes of 4–8 kilometers. A minimum altitude of 1,500 meters and a minimum speed of 500 km/h are required. The aircraft may not fly a fully closed circle. The dumped kerosene forms a fine mist in the turbulence behind the aircraft. Despite the use of highly sensitive methods of analy- sis, no contamination has been detected so far in plant or soil samples after fuel dumps. G Global Compact see “UN Global Compact” Great-circle distance The shortest distance between two points on the Earth’s surface, measured in kilome- ters (great circle kilometers) or nautical miles. The center of a great circle is the center of the Earth. Greenhouse gases Gaseous substances that contribute to the greenhouse effect and have both natural and human (anthropogenic) causes. The most important natural greenhouse gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4); the most impor- tant anthropogenic greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels and methane, primarily from agriculture and industrial livestock farming. Other artificial greenhouse gases are ni- trous oxide (N2O), fluorocarbons (FCs and HFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and chlo- rofluorocarbons (CFCs). H Hub In air transport, a hub is a central traffic point or an airline’s transfer airport. Passen- gers and freight are transported from their point of departure to one of the airline’s “home airports“ (hub). From there, they are carried to their destination by a second flight alongside passengers and freight from other departure points, but with the same destination.