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Balance 2015 ENG - Notes on the scope of consolidation and methodology for calculating absolute and specific consumption and emissions

Sustainability Report Balance // Issue 2015 // Lufthansa Group // 113 must be added to the great-circle distance according to the guidelines of the EU emis- sion allowance trading scheme. The Inter- national Air Transport Association (IATA) has separately developed its own calcula- tion proposals, which deal with the division of fuel consumption between freight and passengers and attribute a larger share of fuel consumption to passengers because of the passenger-specific infrastructure. Although this method has no effect on the overall efficiency of a flight, it changes the apportionment between passengers and freight. There are still divergences between the two methods (including from the method used up to now by Lufthansa). We would welcome a standardized, internationally harmonized and accepted method. Environmental management system The Lufthansa Group collected the environ- mental data used in this report with the aid of its environmental management system. This system also defines how data are verified and transmitted to the Group Envi- ronmental Issues division. The basis for data collection is Lufthansa’s own environ- mental database. Accuracy For presentation purposes the figures in the charts and tables are rounded. Changes from the previous year’s figures and share percentages refer in each case to precise figures, however. For this reason it is possi- ble that a reported value may remain the same from one year to the next even though a relative change is reported. Because of the rounding of share percen- tages, it is also possible that the sum of their addition may differ from the sum of the unrounded percentages. For example, as a result of rounding, share percentages may not add up to 100 percent even though it would be logical to expect them to. the standard estimate; for freight, it is its scale weight. Each aircraft/engine combi- nation present in the fleet is considered separately, and the associated values are calculated with the aid of computer pro- grams provided by the aircraft and engine manufacturers. The annual average flight profile for each subset of the fleet is then fed into these programs. This allows us to determine emissions in relation to flight altitude, distance flown, thrust, and load. This approach is necessary for nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) in particular. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions do not require special calculation methods, as they are generated in a fixed ratio to the quantity of kerosene burned. The combus- tion of 1 tonne of kerosene generates 3.15 tonnes of CO2. Specific consumption and emission values Calculating specific consumption and emissions entails expressing absolute values in relation to transport performance. For example, the ratio liters per 100 pas- senger kilometers (l/100 pkm) is calculated on the basis of actual load factors along with the quantity of kerosene actually con- sumed. The distances used in the calcula- tions are great-circle distances. In combina- tion flights (freight and passenger transport in one aircraft), fuel consumption is attrib- uted on the basis of its share of the total payload to calculate the passenger- and freight-specific figures. Since 2013 the DIN EN 16258 standard has provided a guide for standardized calculation of greenhouse gas emissions for transport processes. This guide uses the same estimates for calculating payload as the Lufthansa Group. When traveled distances are calculated, 95 kilometers Scope of consolidation Reporting on transport performance, kero- sene consumption, and emissions from flight operations in 2014 is – unless noted otherwise – based on the following scope of consolidation: Lufthansa (including its regional part- ners Lufthansa CityLine, Air Dolomiti, Eurowings), Germanwings, Swiss (in- cluding Edelweiss Air), Austrian Airlines and Lufthansa Cargo. Not included are services performed by third parties, as their performance and the aircraft they use are beyond our control. Types of flight service: all scheduled and charter flights. Methodology of calculations Kerosene in absolute terms Kerosene consumption is calculated on the basis of actual flight operations (i.e. using actual load factors and flight routings) according to the gate-to-gate principle. This covers all phases of a flight, from taxiing on the ground to flying detours and holding patterns in the air. Emissions in absolute terms The emissions from flight operations are calculated on the basis of actual transport performance and hence on actual load factors and the actual absolute quantity of kerosene consumed in the reporting year. Transport performance is measured in tonne kilometers; i.e., payload transported over a distance. For passengers and their luggage, an average of 100 kilograms is Notes on the scope of consolidation and methodology for calculating absolute and specific consumption and emissions