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Lufthansa Group Balance 2014 EN - Glossary

A à AEA—Association of European Airlines à Aerosols Aerosols are solid and/or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. They reach the atmosphere by means of natural processes (wind, desert storms, volcanic eruptions) or human activities (combustion of biomass and fossil fuels). The most important aerosols are mineral dust, sea salt, cellular (biological) particles, soot, organic compounds, and sulfates. From a climatic perspective, aerosols are the opponents of greenhouse gases, as they can reflect incident light and thus have a cooling effect. à aireg e.V.—Aviation Initiative for Renew- able Energy in Germany aireg is a registered association of leading German research institutions, ­Lufthansa and other companies in the aviation industry, and bioenergy producers. The goal of this initia- tive, which was founded in 2011, is to advance the development and introduction of regenerative aviation fuels in Germany and to inform the public at large about this topic. à ATM—Air Traffic Management Air traffic management ensures both the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in all phases of operations. à Atmosphere The whole mass of air surrounding the Earth. It is divided into various layers, distinguished from one another by distinct differences in vertical bands of temperature. Important for air traffic are the two lower layers: the tropo- sphere and, above it, the stratosphere. The troposphere’s upper boundaries vary depending on season and latitude. They lie at altitudes of 16 to 18 kilometers above sea level at the equator, and at eight to 12 kilo- meters above sea level at the poles. The temperature in the tropopause, the transition layer between troposphere and stratosphere, drops to about minus 60 degrees Celsius. It rises again in the stratosphere. The so-called ozone layer is also located in the strato- sphere at altitudes of about 25 to 30 kilome- ters. Today’s commercial aircraft fly at cruis- ing altitudes of between eight and 13 kilometers. According to the latest research, air traffic emissions do not contribute to the reduction of the ozone layer. B à B.A.U.M.—Bundesdeutscher Arbeitskreis für Umweltbewusstes Management e.V. (Federal Working Group for Environmen- tally-Aware Management) B.A.U.M. was founded in 1984 as the first independent environmental initiative of Ger- man business. With roughly 550 members, it is the largest of its kind in Europe today. ­Lufthansa has been a member of the Working Group since 1997. à BDL—Bundesverband der Deutschen Luftverkehrswirtschaft (Federal Association of the German Air Transport Industry) ­Lufthansa is a founding member of the Fed- eral Association of the German Air Transport Industry (BDL), which has represented the interests of the German aviation industry with a single voice since December 2010. Its main goals are to make politicians and journalists more aware of aviation’s economic and employment-related importance and to strengthen Germany as a business location for aviation in general. C à Carbon dioxide (CO2) Gas resulting in nature from the burning or decomposition of organic substances (e.g. plant material) and from human or animal respiration. The greenhouse gas CO2 remains in the atmosphere for about 100 years. Scien- tists attribute the increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last 100 years to the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil, natural gas) by humans. Per tonne of fuel, 3.15 tonnes of CO2 result from the combustion process. Currently, about 2.5% of the CO2 emissions due to human activities are caused by global air traffic. (Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) 2012, 2010 values) à Carbon monoxide (CO) Chemical compound consisting of one car- bon and one oxygen atom, formed in the incomplete combustion process of sub- stances containing carbon. For aircraft engines, the level of CO emissions depends greatly on the thrust level: The emissions per kilogram of fuel burned are higher at idle settings, while taxiing, and on approach than during the climbing and cruising phases. à CDA—Continuous Descent Approach Procedure for a flight’s approach phase that requires less engine thrust and is therefore quieter and more fuel efficient. However, this type of approach is possible only if there are no constraints due to heavy air traffic in the airspace concerned. Glossary  118 // Service and Information

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