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Lufthansa Group Balance 2014 EN

Scope of consolidation Reporting on transport performance, kero- sene consumption, and emissions from flight operations in 2013 is—unless noted other- wise—based on the following scope of con- solidation: ­Lufthansa (including its regional partners * ­Lufthansa CityLine, Air Dolomiti, Eurow- ings, Augsburg Airways), Germanwings, Swiss (including Edelweiss Air), Austrian Airlines, and ­Lufthansa Cargo. Not included are services performed by third parties, as their performance and the aircraft they use are beyond our control. Types of flight service: all scheduled and charter flights. Ú Methodology of calculations Kerosene in absolute terms Kerosene consumption is calculated on the basis of actual flight operations (i.e. using actual load factors and flight routings) accord- ing to the gate-to-gate principle. This covers all phases of a flight, from taxiing on the ground to flying detours and holding patterns in the air. Emissions in absolute terms The emissions from flight operations are calculated on the basis of actual transport performance and hence on actual load fac- tors and the actual absolute quantity of kero- sene consumed in the reporting year. Trans- port performance is measured in tonne kilometers; i.e., payload transported over a distance. For passengers and their luggage, an average of 100 kilograms is the standard estimate; for freight, it is its scale weight. Each aircraft/engine combination present in the fleet is considered separately, and the associ- ated values are calculated with the aid of computer programs provided by the aircraft and engine manufacturers. The annual aver- age flight profile for each subset of the fleet is then fed into these programs. This allows us to determine emissions in relation to flight altitude, distance flown, thrust, and load. This approach is necessary for nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) in particular. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions do not require spe- cial calculation methods, as they are gener- ated in a fixed ratio to the quantity of kerosene burned. The combustion of 1 tonne of kero- sene generates 3.15 tonnes of CO2. Specific consumption and emission values Calculating specific consumption and emis- sions entails expressing absolute values in relation to transport performance. For exam- ple, the ratio liters per 100 passenger kilome- ters (l/100 pkm) is calculated on the basis of actual load factors along with the quantity of kerosene actually consumed. The distances used in the calculations are great-circle dis- tances. In combination flights (freight and passenger transport in one aircraft), fuel consumption is attributed on the basis of its share of the total payload to calculate the passenger- and freight-specific figures. Since 2013 the DIN EN 16258 standard has provided a guide for standardized calculation of greenhouse gas emissions for transport processes. This guide uses the same esti- mates for calculating payload as the ­Lufthansa Group. When traveled distances are calculated, 95 kilometers must be added to the great-circle distance according to the guidelines of the EU emission allowance trading scheme. The International Air Trans- port Association (IATA) has separately devel- oped its own calculation proposals, which deal with the division of fuel consumption between freight and passengers and attribute a larger share of fuel consumption to pas- sengers because of the passenger-specific infrastructure. Although this method has no effect on the overall efficiency of a flight, it changes the apportionment between pas- sengers and freight. There are still diver- gences between the two methods (including from the method used up to now by ­Lufthansa). We would welcome a standard- ized, internationally harmonized and accepted method. Environmental management system The ­Lufthansa Group collected the environ- mental data used in this report with the aid of its environmental management system. This system also defines how data are veri- fied and transmitted to the Group Environ- mental Issues division. The basis for data collection is ­Lufthansa’s own environmental database. Accuracy For presentation purposes the figures in the charts and tables are rounded. Changes from the previous year’s figures and share percent- ages refer in each case to precise figures, however. For this reason it is possible that a reported value may remain the same from one year to the next even though a relative change is reported. Because of the rounding of share percentages, it is also possible that the sum of their addition may differ from the sum of the unrounded percentages. For example, as a result of rounding, share percentages may not add up to 100% even though it would be logical to expect them to. Notes on the scope of consolidation and methodology for calculating absolute and specific consumption and emissions *  Augsburg Airways flew in the service of ­Lufthansa until the end of the 2013 summer flight schedule. The cooperation with Contact Air ended in September 2012. Beginning with the 2013 reporting year, therefore, the consumption figures for Contact Air are no longer included in the key performance figures. Sustainability Report Balance // Issue 2014 // Lufthansa Group // 125

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