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Lufthansa Group Balance 2014 EN

H à Hub In air transport, a hub is a central traffic point or an airline’s transfer airport. Passengers and freight are transported from their point of departure to one of the airline’s home airports (hub). From there, they are carried to their destination by a second flight alongside pas- sengers and freight from other departure points, but with the same destination. I à IATA—International Air Transport Asso- ciation The umbrella organization of international commercial aviation. à ICAO—International Civil Aviation Organization A United Nations agency that develops inter- nationally binding norms for civil aviation. à ICC—International Chamber of ­Commerce The ICC was founded in 1919 as the World Business Organization. More than 1,500 business organizations and over 5,000 corpo- rations are organized in the worldwide frame- work of the ICC. ­Lufthansa has been a mem- ber since 1955. à ILO standards Work standards of the International Labor Organization, which include, among others, the bans on child labor, forced labor, and discrimination as well as the fundamental right of freedom of association for employees. à ISO 14001—International environmental management system Companies thereby receive an effective instru- ment that allows them to take environmental aspects into consideration in decisions relat- ing to corporate policies and to continuously improve the situation of environmental care in relation to all daily tasks. K à Kerosene Fuel for jet and propeller engines that is chemically similar to petroleum. Like diesel fuel or gasoline, kerosene is produced by distilling crude oil; unlike these fuels, kerosene does not contain halogenated additives. L à LHSB—­Lufthansa School of Business Germany’s first corporate university. It has received multiple awards for the worldwide standards it establishes for the development and training of professionals and managers. The LHSB supports processes of change within the Group and promotes a shared management culture. à Low-cost segment Airlines offering predominantly low fares, but featuring reduced or separately charged services on the ground and in the air. Flights are most often operated to/from airports outside of major population centers. M à Mentoring Instrument for targeted support of junior employees. Focuses on regular personal contacts between mentor and mentee. à MRO Acronym standing for maintenance, repair, and overhaul of aircraft à MTOW Acronym standing for maximum takeoff weight of an aircraft N à Nitrogen oxides (NOX) Chemical compounds consisting of one nitrogen and several oxygen atoms. NOX is defined as the sum of NO and NO2 com- pounds. Natural sources include lightning and microbes in the soil. Nitrogen oxides are also generated in combustion processes under high pressures and temperatures. Both of these parameters have been increased in modern aircraft engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption as well as emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocar- bons. However, future combustion chambers of an advanced design could help reduce NOX emissions by 85%. Depending on the type of aircraft and operational conditions, this value varies between six and 20 kilograms per tonne of fuel burned. Air traffic contributes 2–3% of man-made NOX emissions. Climate models show that nitrogen oxides have increased the concentration of ozone at cruis- ing altitudes by a few percentage points. à NOX see Nitrogen oxides Sustainability Report Balance // Issue 2014 // Lufthansa Group // 121

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