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DLH_Balance_2016_ENG - Glossary

108 // Service and Information A Aerosols Aerosols are solid and/or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. They reach the atmosphere by means of natural pro- cesses (wind, desert storms, volcanic erup- tions) or human activities (combustion of biomass and fossil fuels). The most impor- tant aerosols are mineral dust, sea salt, cellular (biological) particles, soot, organic compounds, and sulfates. From a climatic perspective, aerosols are the opponents of greenhouse gases, as they can re ect incident light and thus have a cooling effect. aireg e.V. – Aviation Initiative for Renewable Energy in Germany aireg is a registered association of leading German research institutions, Lufthansa and other companies in the aviation indus- try, and bioenergy producers. The goal of this initiative, which was founded in 2011, is to advance the development and intro- duction of regenerative aviation fuels in Germany and to inform the public at large about this topic. Air traf c management ensures both the safe and the ef cient movement of aircraft in all phases of operations. Atmosphere Mass of air surrounding the Earth. It is divided into various layers, which are sepa- rated from one another by signi cantly different vertical temperature distributions. Important for air traf c are the two lower layers: the troposphere and, above it, the stratosphere. The troposphere’s upper boundaries vary depending on season and latitude. They lie at altitudes of 16 to 18 kilometers above sea level at the equator, and at eight to 12 kilometers above sea level at the poles. The temperature in the tropopause, the transition layer between troposphere and stratosphere, drops to about minus 60 degrees Celsius. It rises again in the stratosphere. C Carbon dioxide (CO2) Gas resulting in nature from the burning or decomposition of organic substances (e.g. plant material). The greenhouse gas CO2 remains in the atmosphere for about 100 years. Scientists attribute the increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last 100 years to the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil, natural gas) by humans. Per tonne of fuel, 3.15 tonnes of CO2 result from the combus- tion process. Currently, about 2.42 percent of the CO2 emissions due to human activi- ties are caused by global air traf c. (Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) 2014, 2012 values) Carbon monoxide (CO) Chemical compound consisting of one carbon and one oxygen atom, formed in the incomplete combustion process of substances containing carbon. For aircraft engines, the level of CO emissions depends greatly on the thrust level: The emissions per kilogram of fuel burned are higher at idle settings, while taxiing, and on approach than during the climbing and cruising phases. CDP (previously Carbon Disclosure Project) The CDP is an independent, charitable organization with a current membership of more than 820 institutional investors world- wide. The goal of this initiative, which was founded in 2000, is to motivate the world’s largest listed corporations to make data on their greenhouse gas emissions and their climate protection strategies transparent. For this purpose, the CDP and its partners jointly developed two indices: the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index, which includes companies that make their emissions trans- parent to a particular extent, and the Car- bon Performance Leadership Index, which takes concrete climate protection achieve- ments into account. Chapter 4 aircraft Aircraft that comply with the strictest noise protection standard currently in force – the Chapter 4 noise standard. The Environ- mental Committee (CAEP) of the ICAO agreed on this standard in September 2001. As a result, all aircraft newly certi ed since 2006 must remain cumulatively below the Chapter 3 noise levels by 10 decibels or more. The maximum noise emission values for aircraft were introduced by the ICAO under Annex 16 to the Con- vention on International Civil Aviation. Noise levels depend on the aircraft’s maximum takeoff weight and number of engines. CO see “Carbon monoxide” CO2 see “Carbon dioxide” Compliance Compliance describes in their entirety all measures that ensure the lawful conduct of companies, their management bodies, and their employees with regard to legal direc- tives and interdictions. Corporate Responsibility (CR) Corporate responsibility expresses the degree to which a company assumes accountability for the effects its business activities have on employees, customers, society, and the environment. Glossary

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