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Currently about 120 airlines worldwide, including most airlines within the Lufthansa Group, rely on Lido/Flight by Lufthansa Systems. On the basis of total ight-relevant data, weather conditions and current air- space conditions, including all restrictions, this tool automatically or interactively calcu- lates the best suitable routing for a ight. Comparison calculations on the basis of more than 4,000 ight plans revealed: Depending on the particular optimization goal, Lido/Flight allows the reduction of fuel consumption, ight time or ight costs inclusive of air traf c control fees by up to 2 percent, in contrast with other applica- tions. The next-generation product Lido/ Flight 4D will be introduced step by step from 2016. It offers even greater integra- tion, modern graphic displays, 4D optimi- zation and comprehensive automatization of ight routing and ight routing manage- ment processes. Meanwhile, the module “Tracks” of the electronic navigation solution Lido/eRoute- Manual shows pilots not only the routing currently planned but also the routings actually own in the past. In this way, they receive information on possible more direct routes before the beginning of a ight and can request these from air traf c control if appropriate. Currently in trial operation at Lufthansa, “Tracks” is expected to be introduced in July 2016. In fall 2015, Lufthansa Systems presented a new Mobile Updater, which pilots can use to update their Lido/eRouteManual at any time and at any location. Lufthansa Cargo focuses as well on the systematic search for route shortcuts, so-called “directs”. In this context, the air freight specialist also began using the analysis of historical ight routings from mid-2016. Possible shortcuts are to be included in ight route planning later on, in coordination with the relevant control centers. Furthermore, Lufthansa Cargo set up an additional waypoint for the alter- native airport Frankfurt Hahn in coordina- tion with Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS). For approaches to Frankfurt, this measure shortens the distance to be planned to Hahn and thus less kerosene has to be carried during each approach to Frankfurt, even should the alternative airport not be needed. In this way, the airline conserves about 950 tonnes of kerosene per year. Lufthansa Cargo optimized the routes to the alternative airports associated with other destinations in the same way, con- serving another 280 tonnes of fuel per year. The innovative Cyclean Engine Wash, developed by Lufthansa Technik, helps airlines worldwide to reduce the kerosene consumption of their aircraft by up to 1 percent. Airlines have applied the water- based engine wash system more than 40,000 times to date – in part because it is the only established procedure of this kind that can be applied right at the gate. An- other advantage is that engines can now be cleaned at external temperatures down to minus 10 degrees Celsius. Lufthansa Technik offers Cyclean for all current engine types produced by the large manu- factures such as General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, CFMI and IAE. In addition, the company also offers a dry washing method for aircraft fuselages, using a cleaning paste; this alternative takes more effort than wet washes but consumes signi cantly fewer resources. Meanwhile, Lufthansa Technik is working to develop further innovations. Among these efforts is a research project set to run until 2017 to test small CO2 dry-ice pellets and other blasting abrasives for cleaning engines. measures Economic incentive systems are to be understood as a complement to the pre- ceding pillars. For the Lufthansa Group, the most effective instrument in this area is a worldwide-valid, market-based and com- petition-neutral system for CO2 compensa- tion (also called carbon offsetting). The United Nations’ International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) decided in October 2013 to develop a system for climate charges with worldwide validity, whose introduction is to be approved in October 2016 (see interview on page 37). By contrast, the European Union currently still applies an emissions trading system concerning all intra-European ights. In the opinion of the Lufthansa Group, insular solutions of this kind are the wrong approach, as they unilaterally burden Euro- pean airlines in contrast to airlines outside of Europe (see page 59, Balance 2014). Should the ICAO plenary session in Octo- ber 2016 not approve a global solution, the EU has announced its intention to expand its emissions trading system to all interna- tional ights to and from EU airports. Another option for limiting the effects of CO2 emissions from air transport are volun- tary CO2 compensation schemes. The Group airlines Lufthansa, Swiss and Austrian Airlines as well as the Lufthansa subsidiary AirPlus have offered their customers such programs for many years (see page 67, CO2 compensation). Sustainability Report Balance // Issue 2016 // Lufthansa Group // 51

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