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The project MODAL (Models and Data for the Development of Active Noise Protection Measures in Aviation), which was headed by the Lufthansa Group and supported in the context of the aviation research pro- gram of Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology, ended in 2015. Together with the German Aerospace Center (DLR) as well as several airports and scienti c institutes, the Lufthansa experts have created a new database, which contributes to the development of an innovative exible aircraft noise calculation method according to DIN 45689. At the end of June 2015, the research partners again conducted yover measurements for MODAL with Lufthansa Cargo MD-11 freight aircraft at Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport; two aircraft were equipped with modi ed acoustic panels. As the data analysis did not produce an unequivocal result, no recommendations for retro ttings could be made. This example illustrates well that the Lufthansa Group’s voluntary commitment to research for less noise is quite costly and complex. Furthermore, the Lufthansa Group sup- ported the noise effect study NORAH (Noise-Related Annoyance, Cognition and Health), which was concluded in 2015. Among other results, the survey showed that the health risks and negative effects of aircraft noise are apparently less pro- nounced than was previously assumed. The German Aviation Association (BDL) published its rst aircraft noise report in 2015. According to analyses carried out by Germany’s Environment Agency, 10.2 million people in Germany are affected by road noise while 6.2 million people are affected by rail noise with an average noise level of more than 55 dB(A). In contrast, aircraft noise affects only 738,000 people. On May 30, 2016, the state of Hesse’s economics minister Tarek Al-Wazir and representatives of the aviation industry, Frankfurt Airport and Deutsche Flugsiche- rung (DFS) signed a voluntary agreement concerning the application of “noise breaks” as part of regular operations at Frankfurt Airport. The noise break concept means that during west-wind operations – the main operating direction at Frankfurt Airport – some runways are not used be- tween 5 and 6 a.m. and between 10 and 11 p.m. Aircraft movements are bundled on the remaining runways during these times. This gives people living nearby and beneath the approach routes of these unused runways an additional hour of quiet. A one-year trial run had shown a substantial reduction of noise burdens during those peripheral hours. From the end of May to the end of August 2016, Lufthansa, DFS and Fraport are set to test new satellite-supported approach procedures at Frankfurt Airport. The goal of these trials is to prove the advantages of curved approach procedures linked to this new technology in areas close to air- ports. The test series also contributes to basic research for active noise protection and is part of the research project Single European Sky Air Traf c Management Research (SESAR, see 48). Further, at Hamburg Airport the Lufthansa Group is committed to a punctuality offen- sive to reduce the aircraft noise burden on people living near the airport. Together with three other airlines and Hamburg Airport, Lufthansa and Eurowings signed a declara- tion at the end of April 2016 concerning the reduction of delays after 11 p.m. In this punctuality offensive, the partners pledge to apply the so-called “delay regulation” as rarely as possible. 60 // Climate and Environmental Responsibility In 2015, yover measurements were conducted at Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport with Lufthansa Cargo MD-11 freight aircraft to test noise-reducing modi cations on engines and landing gear.

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