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DLH_Balance_2016_ENG - Notes on the scope of consolidation and methodology for calculating

116 // Service and Information according to the guidelines of the EU emis- sion allowance trading scheme. The Inter- national Air Transport Association (IATA) has separately developed its own calcula- tion proposals, which deal with the division of fuel consumption between freight and passengers and attribute a larger share of fuel consumption to passengers because of the passenger-speci c infrastructure. Although this method has no effect on the overall ef ciency of a ight, it changes the apportionment between passengers and freight. There are still divergences between the two methods (including from the method used up to now by Lufthansa). We would welcome a standardized, internationally harmonized and accepted method. Environmental management system The Lufthansa Group collected the environ- mental data used in this report with the aid of its environmental management system. This system also de nes how data are veri ed and transmitted to the Group Envi- ronmental Issues division. The basis for data collection is Lufthansa’s own environ- mental database. Accuracy For presentation purposes the gures in the charts and tables are rounded. Changes from the previous year’s gures and share percentages refer in each case to precise gures, however. For this reason it is possi- ble that a reported value may remain the same from one year to the next even though a relative change is reported. Because of the rounding of share percent- ages, it is also possible that the sum of their addition may differ from the sum of the unrounded percentages. For example, as a result of rounding, share percentages may not add up to 100 percent even though it would be logical to expect them to. scale weight. Each aircraft/engine combi- nation present in the eet is considered separately, and the associated values are calculated with the aid of computer pro- grams provided by the aircraft and engine manufacturers. The annual average ight pro le for each subset of the eet is then fed into these programs. This allows us to determine emissions in relation to ight altitude, distance own, thrust, and load. This approach is necessary for nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) in particular. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions do not require special calculation methods, as they are generated in a xed ratio to the quantity of kerosene burned. The combus- tion of 1 tonne of kerosene generates 3.15 tonnes of CO2. emission values Calculating speci c consumption and emissions entails expressing absolute values in relation to transport performance. For example, the ratio liters per 100 pas- senger kilometers (l/100 pkm) is calculated on the basis of actual load factors along with the quantity of kerosene actually con- sumed. The distances used in the calcula- tions are great-circle distances. In combina- tion ights (freight and passenger transport in one aircraft), fuel consumption is attri- buted on the basis of its share of the total payload to calculate the passenger- and freight-speci c gures. Since 2013 the DIN EN 16258 standard has provided a guide for standardized calculation of greenhouse gas emissions for transport processes. This guide uses the same estimates for calculating payload as the Lufthansa Group. When traveled distances are calculated, 95 kilometers must be added to the great-circle distance Scope of consolidation Reporting on transport performance, kero- sene consumption, and emissions from ight operations in 2015 is – unless noted otherwise – based on the following scope of consolidation: Lufthansa (including Lufthansa CityLine, Air Dolomiti, Eurowings), Germanwings, Swiss (including Edelweiss Air), Austrian Airlines and Lufthansa Cargo. Not in- cluded are services performed by third parties, as their performance and the aircraft they use are beyond our control. Types of ight service: all scheduled and charter ights. Methodology of calculations Kerosene in absolute terms Kerosene consumption is calculated on the basis of actual ight operations (i.e. using actual load factors and ight routings) according to the gate-to-gate principle. This covers all phases of a ight, from taxiing on the ground to ying detours and holding patterns in the air. Emissions in absolute terms The emissions from ight operations are calculated on the basis of actual transport performance and hence on actual load factors and the actual absolute quantity of kerosene consumed in the reporting year. Transport performance is measured in tonne kilometers; i.e., payload transported over a distance. For passengers and their luggage, an average of 100 kilograms is the standard estimate; for freight, it is its Notes on the scope of consolidation and methodology

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